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Environmental Chemistry Of Aerosols (hb)2008 by Colbeck
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ISBNSpecification
  SPECIFICATION
AEROSOL SCIENCE: TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS (hb)2014
Author: IAN COLBECK
ISBN: 9781119977926
Year: 2014
Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL (UK)
Category: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Edition: 1
Format: Hard Cover
Language: English
Pages: 490
 ABOUT THE TITLE
Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of
environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and
poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where
exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments.

However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the
lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials
all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have
made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and
concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion.
Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific
status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes:

• Satellite aerosol remote sensing
• The effects of aerosols on climate change
• Air pollution and health
• Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery
• Bioaerosols and hospital infections
• Particle emissions from vehicles
• The safety of emerging nanomaterials
• Radioactive aerosols: tracers of
With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the
eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely,
concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.

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 TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Contributors xiii
Preface xv
1. Introduction 1
Mihalis Lazaridis and Ian Colbeck
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Size and Shape 5
1.3 Size Distribution 6
1.4 Chemical Composition 10
1.5 Measurements and Sampling 11
References 12
2. Aerosol Dynamics 15
Mihalis Lazaridis and Yannis Drossinos
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 General Dynamic Equation 17
2.3 Nucleation: New Particle Formation 19
2.4 Growth by Condensation 26
2.5 Coagulation and Agglomeration 27
2.6 Deposition Mechanisms 32
2.7 Resuspension 38
References 41
3. Recommendations for Aerosol Sampling 45
Alfred Wiedensohler, Wolfram Birmili, Jean-Philippe Putaud, and John Ogren
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Guidelines for Standardized Aerosol Sampling 46
3.3 Concrete Sampling Configurations 53
3.4 Artifact-Free Sampling for Organic Carbon Analysis 57
Acknowledgments 59
References 59
4. Aerosol Instrumentation 61
Da-Ren Chen and David Y. H. Pui
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2 General Strategy 62
4.3 Aerosol Sampling Inlets and Transport 63
4.4 Integral Moment Measurement 64
4.5 Particle Surface Area Measurement 68
4.6 Size-Distribution Measurement 70
4.7 Chemical Composition Measurement 78
4.8 Conclusion 80
References 82
5. Filtration Mechanisms 89
Sarah Dunnett
5.1 Introduction 89
5.2 Deposition Mechanisms 91
5.3 Factors Affecting Efficiency 104
5.4 Filter Randomness 109
5.5 Applications 109
5.6 Conclusions 110
Nomenclature 110
References 113
6. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols 119
Sagnik Dey and Sachchida Nand Tripathi
6.1 Introduction 119
6.2 Surface-Based Remote Sensing 120
6.3 Satellite-Based Remote Sensing 126
6.4 Summary and Future Requirements 141
Acknowledgements 142
References 142
7. Atmospheric Particle Nucleation 153
Mikko Sipilä, Katrianne Lehtipalo, and Markku Kulmala
7.1 General Relevance 153
7.2 Detection of Atmospheric Nanoparticles 156
7.3 Atmospheric Observations of New Particle Formation 163
7.4 Laboratory Experiments 166
7.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Challenges 169
References 170
8. Atmospheric Aerosols and Climate Impacts 181
Maria Kanakidou
8.1 Introduction 181
8.2 Global Aerosol Distributions 181
8.3 Aerosol Climate Impacts 182
8.4 Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions 186
8.5 Extinction of Radiation by Aerosols (Direct Effect) 190
8.6 Aerosols and Clouds (Indirect Effect) 194
8.7 Radiative Forcing Estimates 200
8.8 The Way Forward 203
References 203
9. Air Pollution and Health and the Role of Aerosols 207
Pat Goodman and Otto Hänninen
9.1 Background 207
9.2 Size Fractions 208
9.3 Which Pollution Particle Sizes Are Important? 209
9.4 What Health Outcomes Are Associated with Exposure to Air Pollution? 209
9.5 Sources of Atmospheric Aerosols 209
9.6 Particle Deposition in the Lungs 210
9.7 Aerosol Interaction Mechanisms in the Human Body 211
9.8 Human Respiratory Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure 212
9.9 Cardiovascular Outcomes and Aerosol Exposure 215
9.10 Conclusions and Recommendations 215
References 216
10. Pharmaceutical Aerosols and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 221
Darragh Murnane, Victoria Hutter, and Marie Harang
10.1 Introduction 221
10.2 Pharmaceutical Aerosols in Disease Treatment 223
10.3 Aerosol Physicochemical Properties of Importance in Lung Deposition 226
10.4 The Fate of Inhaled Aerosol Particles in the Lung 228
10.5 Production of Inhalable Particles 233
10.6 Aerosol Generation and Delivery Systems for Pulmonary Therapy 237
10.7 Product Performance Testing 253
10.8 Conclusion and Outlook 255
References 255
11. Bioaerosols and Hospital Infections 271
Kaman Lai, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir, and Jonathon Taylor
11.1 The Importance of Bioaerosols and Infections 271
11.2 Bioaerosol-Related Infections in Hospitals 272
11.3 Bioaerosol Properties and Deposition in Human Respiratory Systems 275
11.4 Chain of Infection and Infection Control in Hospitals 275
11.5 Application of Aerosol Science and Technology in Infection Control 277
11.6 Conclusion 285
References 285
12. Nanostructured Material Synthesis in the Gas Phase 291
Peter V. Pikhitsa and Mansoo Choi
12.1 Introduction 291
12.2 Aerosol-Based Synthesis 292
12.3 Flame Synthesis 292
12.4 Flame and Laser Synthesis 299
12.5 Laser-Induced Synthesis 302
12.6 Metal-Powder Combustion 309
12.7 Spark Discharge 313
12.8 Assembling Useful Nanostructures 314
12.9 Conclusions 322
References 323
13. The Safety of Emerging Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 327
L. Reijnders
13.1 Introduction 327
13.2 Human Health and Inhaled Persistent Engineered Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 330
13.3 Human Health Hazards and Risks Linked to the Ingestion of Persistent Inorganic Nanomaterials 333
13.4 Ecotoxicity of Persistent Inorganic and Carbon Nanomaterials 335
13.5 Conclusion 336
References 336
14. Environmental Health in Built Environments 345
Zaheer Ahmad Nasir
14.1 Environmental Hazards and Built Environments 345
14.2 Particulate Contaminants 348
14.3 Gas Contaminants 351
References 362
15. Particle Emissions from Vehicles 369
Jonathan Symonds
15.1 Introduction 369
15.2 Engine Concepts and Technologies 370
15.3 Particle Formation 373
15.4 Impact of Vehicle Particle Emissions 376
15.5 Sampling and Measurement Techniques 378
15.6 Amelioration Techniques 385
Acknowledgements 388
References 388
16. Movement of Bioaerosols in the Atmosphere and the Consequences for Climate and Microbial Evolution 393
Cindy E. Morris, Christel Leyronas, and Philippe C. Nicot
16.1 Introduction 393
16.2 Emission: Launch into the Atmosphere 395
16.3 Transport in the Earth’s Boundary Layer 399
16.4 Long-Distance Transport: From the Boundary Layer into the Free Troposphere 404
16.5 Interaction of Microbial Aerosols with Atmospheric Processes 406
16.6 Implications of Aerial Transport for Microbial Evolutionary History 407
References 410
17. Disinfection of Airborne Organisms by Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Sunlight 417
Jana S. Kesavan and Jose-Luis Sagripanti
17.1 Introduction 417
17.2 UV Radiation 418
17.3 Sunlight 419
17.4 Selected Organisms 421
17.5 Effects of UV Light on Aerosolized Organisms 423
17.6 Disinfection of Rooms Using UV-C Radiation 429
17.7 Sunlight Exposure Studies 430
17.8 Testing Considerations 431
17.9 Discussion 435
References 435
18. Radioactive Aerosols: Tracers of Atmospheric Processes 441
Katsumi Hirose
18.1 Introduction 441
18.2 Origin of Radioactive Aerosols 442
18.3 Tracers of Atmospheric Processes 446
18.4 Tracer of Environmental Change 457
18.5 Conclusion 460
References 461
Index 469
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